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The Complete Guide to Hydraulic Pump Systems

Hydraulic pump

Are you curious about hydraulic pump systems, what they are, and how they’re used in industries? In this article, we explain the basics of hydraulic systems, the many types of systems, how they work, and best practices for taking care of these systems.

What Are Hydraulics Systems?

In hydraulics systems, the pump transforms mechanical power into hydraulic energy.One common example of hydraulics at work is an elevator. Elevators can use hydraulic pump systems to compress fluid into movement. Hydraulics systems are also used in many other everyday applications, including:

  • Dishwashers
  • Gas Pumps
  • Vehicles
  • Office Chairs
  • Airplanes

Types of Hydraulics Systems

The two main types of hydraulic systems are open-loop and closed-loop. If you use an open-loop system, there is no pressure, but the fluid does flow when the actuating mechanism is sitting idle. A closed-loop system creates pressure for the fluids when the pump is active.

Another difference between the two is the fact that a closed-loop hydraulic system utilizes a feed pump or a charger pump while a directional control valve is used in an open-loop system.

A hydraulics system pump falls into two categories: fixed displacement and variable displacement.  A fixed displacement pump moves a certain amount of fluid using the motor’s every stroke. If you need a hydraulic pump for a single function, a fixed displacement pump is the best choice. Also, fixed displacement pumps are easy to maintain and will give you high flow rates even with a fairly low amount of pressure.

A variable displacement pump is better if you have to use it for a number of different tasks. The designs of variable displacement pumps are a bit more complex compared to fixed pumps. Additionally, it is also worth noting that it costs more to maintain and produce a variable displacement pump, too.

How Does a Hydraulic Pump System Work?

The hydraulic fluid first gets pumped out of the reservoir into various pipes and it then passes into an actuator after going through some control valves. The fluid’s pressure on a piston means that it exerts a certain load force. This load force then generates rotational motion or linear motion on a specific load. There is liquid on the piston’s opposite side and this becomes pressurized, meaning that it will travel through the pipes and return to the pump or the reservoir. This ensures that you don’t lose any fluid and this sealed circuit will lubricate itself, too.

If you connect multiple circuits, each circuit’s load force can provide power to the next one. You can use this force multiplication to lift or push heavy loads. You must ensure that all of the circuit’s components are in good shape so that the system works properly.

Components of a Hydraulics System

The first component is the reservoir which houses the hydraulic fluid. Another component is the pump which takes in the fluid from the reservoir and distributes it throughout the system. The motor is the electrical power source and this powers the pump in the hydraulics system.

The actuator is what transforms hydraulic power into motion that is mechanical and linear. The valves control the fluid’s pressure, flow rate, and direction within the system. The pipes transfer the liquid between all of the different system parts.

Best Practices for Hydraulic Pump Systems

You should inspect the pump’s fittings, clamps, shaft seals, and intake lines regularly. It is also best to put in a fluid temperature alarm and utilize the hydraulic oil’s recommended viscosity for the system. You should also make sure that the fluid levels of the reservoir are correctly maintained.

Additionally, it’s best to utilize a heat exchanger that is appropriate for the hydraulics system. You should get rid of anything causing aeration or vapor cavities by using a well-designed system and suitable return line filters.

Should You Use a Hydraulics System?

Hydraulics systems are used in a variety of applications. The type of system that you need depends on the task you need to use the system for. Hydraulics systems typically put out more force than other systems, like mechanical, electrical, and pneumatic. If you need higher power and better safety, a hydraulics system might be the right choice for you. Many industries, including construction, manufacturing, robotics, and steel processing, rely on hydraulics systems.

For more information, contact Panagon Systems. We specialize in hydraulic pumps and motors, and can help you better understand hydraulic pump systems and how they work. Click here to learn more about who we are, or call (586) 786-3920 today to request a consultation

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